A new study found that migration from a non-Western country to the US is associated with immediate loss of gut microbiome diversity and function.

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Yes, you read that correctly.

To make it even more clear, when a foreigner who comes from a country that still eats in the way they always have, and is not physically influenced by the Western world comes to the US multiple changes happen.  These changes affect all racial groups, a few more than others.

 

The changes include loss of gut microbiome, the increases of schizophrenia in which no schizophrenia was within that persons/family history and other physical and psychological issues begin to develop!  And the longer they are here in the US the more these symptoms and associated problems increase.

 

What?  Wow!

 

It may very be.  I can tell you that research regarding the microbiome is exploding! Moreover, the microbiome in humans has been associated with heart disease, inflammatory disease and mental illnesses.

 

How much all of this has to do with the microbiome being abused by diet, chemicals, and drugs so it can’t work properly.

 

The journal article here:

Highlights – Loss of diversity increases with obesity and is compounded across generations

Summary – Using 16S and deep shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing, we found that migration from a non-Western country to the United States is associated with immediate loss of gut microbiome diversity and function in which US-associated strains and functions displace native strains and functions. These effects increase with duration of US residence and are compounded by obesity and across generations.

Citation: US Immigration Westernizes the Human Gut Microbiome Pajau Vangay Abigail J. Johnson Tonya L. Ward Purna C. Kashyap Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera Dan Knights Cell Published: November 1, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.029

 

A theory is that the US food supply is laced with antibiotics and pesticides that kill gut bacteria. Also people may be adopting a diet with more meat than vegetables and gut bacteria prefer vegetables.  Glyphosate, the main synthetic herbicide, which most GE crops are engineered to withstand, has a negative impact on the types of bacteria that colonize the fiber rich digestive track.

 

Just to add a bit more about dangerous of GMO Crops.

There was recently a report that colon cancer rates have exploded in Brazil since the dawn of their GMO agriculture sector. The GMO’s in Brazil go to feed the cows which Brazilians then eat, which is one cause of colon cancer. Brazil only recently started eating the amount of meat they have been eating when prior vegetables and fruit were the most available foods, again, animal product consumption which we know causes colon cancer.

 

I did see another recent post about (breakfast) cereals which have ‘more weedkiller than vitamins’.  And lets not even mention ‘preservatives’ in everything that also destroy the ecosystem of your gut.

 

~Tony

 


These effects increase with duration of US residence. Loss of diversity increases with obesity and is compounded across generations.

Summary
Many US immigrant populations develop metabolic diseases post immigration, but the causes are not well understood. Although the microbiome plays a role in metabolic disease, there have been no studies measuring the effects of US immigration on the gut microbiome. We collected stool, dietary recalls, and anthropometrics from 514 Hmong and Karen individuals living in Thailand and the United States, including first- and second-generation immigrants and 19 Karen individuals sampled before and after immigration, as well as from 36 US-born European American individuals. Using 16S and deep shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing, we found that migration from a non-Western country to the United States is associated with immediate loss of gut microbiome diversity and function in which US-associated strains and functions displace native strains and functions. These effects increase with duration of US residence and are compounded by obesity and across generations.

Introduction

Previous work has established that diet and geographical environment are two principal determinants of microbiome structure and function (

,,,,,,,). Rural indigenous populations have been found to harbor substantial biodiversity in their gut microbiomes, including novel microbial taxa not found in industrialized populations (,,,,,). This loss of indigenous microbes or “disappearing microbiota” () may be critical in explaining the rise of chronic diseases in the modern world. Despite the frequent migration of people across national borders in an increasingly interconnected world, little is known about how human migration affects the human microbiome.

The United States hosts the largest number of immigrants in the world (49.8 million or 19% of the world’s total immigrants and approximately 21% of the US population) (

). Epidemiological evidence has shown that residency in the United States increases the risk of obesity and other chronic diseases among immigrants relative to individuals of the same ethnicity that continue to reside in their country of birth, with some groups experiencing up to a 4-fold increase in obesity after 15 years (,

). Refugees, in particular, appear to be more vulnerable to rapid weight gain (,), with Southeast Asian refugees exhibiting the highest average increases in body mass index (BMI) after relocation to the United States (). The Hmong, a minority ethnic group from China who also reside in Southeast Asia, make up the largest refugee group in Minnesota (22,033 total refugees as of 2014) (,). The Karen, an ethnic minority from Burma, have been arriving in large numbers in more recent years (). Overweight status and obesity rates are highest among Hmong and Karen compared to other Asian ethnic groups in Minnesota (

,,,). Western diet acculturation, previous exposure to food insecurity, and physical inactivity have been identified as contributing factors (,), although they do not fully explain risk of obesity.
The gut microbiome plays a critical role in host metabolism and is heavily influenced by an individual’s long-term diet (,) and can also respond quickly to dramatic dietary changes (,). Thus, the gut microbiome offers an important window into the consequences of diet and lifestyle changes associated with human migration. To study the short- and long-term impacts of migration on the microbiome, we measured gut microbiomes and dietary intake from Hmong and Karen immigrants and refugees (henceforth referred to as immigrants) in cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts undergoing relocation to the United States stratified by BMI (high ≥ 25 and low < 25). A first-generation immigrant group (foreign-born US residents) included individuals with duration of US residence ranging from a few days to more than 40 years, allowing us to test for changes in the gut microbiome associated with long-term US residence. We included second-generation Hmong immigrants (born in the United States to first-generation Hmong immigrants) to determine whether the effects of US immigration were compounded across generations by birth in the United States. Finally, we followed a unique longitudinal cohort of 19 Karen refugees for up to 9 months beginning immediately before or after arrival in the Unites States to measure the short-term effects of US immigration.